He named the four quarters of the world, mankind he created

Enuma Elish, The Epic of Creation

Christian, Islamic, and Abrahamic Religions

Selections from Old Testament:

Isaiah 40:22

He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in.

Isaiah 11:12

And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.

Psalms 24:2

For he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.

Proverbs 8:27

When he established the heavens, I was there; when he drew a circle on the face of the deep,

Proverbs 30:4

Who has established all the ends of the earth?

I Samuel 2: 8, Job 9:6

The pillars of the earth are jehovah’s and he hath set the world upon them

Job 38:6

Whereupon are the foundations made to sink, or who laid the corner-stone thereof

Job 26:7

He stretcheth out the North over the empty place, and hangeth the Earth upon nothing

Job 26:10

He hath described a circumference upon the face of the waters, unto the boundary of light with darkness

Job 26:7

He spreadeth out the North over the desolate place and supporteth the Earth upon fastenings

Zechariah 12:1 Isaiah 11:22

Stetcheth out the Heavens as a curtain and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in

Exodus 20:4, Deuteronomy 5:8

the waters under the earth

Selections from New Testament:

Romans 10:18

Their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the end of the world

Daniel 4:10-11.

... a tree of great height at the centre of the earth...reaching with its top to the sky and visible to the earth's farthest bounds.

Matthew 4:8:

Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world

Luke 4:5:

And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.

Revelations 7:1

And after these things I saw four angels standing on four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

Selections from Qur’an:


And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon Mountains firm and immovable.


[It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] …


And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind,


And the earth We have spread out, and excellent is the preparer.


And after that He spread the earth.


And at the earth - how it is spread out?


"Out on the Murrumbidgee there is a tale about the setting sun. The country there is very different from what it is where the aborigines had a story of the Escapees. It is flat. It seems to be below, far below, the level of the sea."

"It seems to be a disc, like a huge plate." Australian Legends by C.W. Peck


"By the second, Papa-tu-a-nuku ("Flat, Resembling the Earth"), he was the parent of Rehua, Tane, Paia, Tu, Rongo, Ru, and a host of other minor deities."

Oceanic Mythology by Roland B. Dixon

Indonesia and Oceanic Mythology

"The first son of Wigan, called Kabigat, went from the sky-region, Hudog, to the Earth World to hunt with dogs. As the earth was then entirely level, his dogs ran much from one side to another, pursuing their quarry, and this they did without Kabigat hearing their barking. In consequence of which, it is reported that Kabigat said: 'I see that the earth is completely flat, because there does not resound the echo of the barking of the dogs.' After becoming pensive for a little while he decided to return to the heights of the Sky World."

Oceanic Mythology by Roland B. Dixon


“Skoll and Hati are giants in wolf-guise. They were sent forth by the Mother of Evil, the dark and fearsome Hag, Gulveig-Hoder, whose children they are. She dwells in the Iarnvid, the black forest of iron trees, on the world's edge, which is the habitation of a witch family dreaded both by gods and by men.”

Teutonic Myth And Legend by Donald A. Mackenzie


Shinto holds that "heaven" is over the sea and in the mountains a both horizontal and vertical cosmology depending on context.


In Egyptian mythology the Earth was a flat expanse of land expressed as the god Geb. The goddess Nut stretched over this space encompassing Shu, the air god. In addition there was an underworld and undersky. Beyond the sky was Nu, creation chaos.

Wikipedia Ancient Egyptian Cosmology


In a creation story, the world is made from a flat flower petal.

There is also of course the world turtle that supported the flat earth.

Why the World is on the Back of a Turtle - Miller, Jay; Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 306–308


Mount Meru

“Mount Meru, in Hindu mythology, a golden mountain that stands in the centre of the universe and is the axis of the world. It is the abode of gods, and its foothills are the Himalayas, to the south of which extends Bhāratavarṣa (“Land of the Sons of Bharata”), the ancient name for India. The roof tower crowning the shrine in a Hindu temple represents Meru. As the world axis, Mount Meru reaches down below the ground, into the nether regions, as far as it extends into the heavens. All of the principal deities have their own celestial kingdoms on or near it, where their devotees reside with them after death, while awaiting their next reincarnation.”

Encyclopedia Britannica, Mount Meru

Ancient Greek

In greek mythology Atlas held up the heavenly sphere which hung above the flat earth.


Often times Eratosthenes is cited as having shown us the Earth was round using comparison of the lengths of shadows at various points on the earth. It can be seen upon inspection that this is indeed no proof at all. Consider the cosmology in Huai Nan tzu which takes the same practice, identical validity of reasoning, and similar measurements with instead the intent to measure the distance to the heavenly bodies, in contradistinction to the purpose of Eratosthenes - to measure the circumference of the pre-assumed round planet.

In the the case of Eratosthenes he must begin with the first assumption in his contextual language of a round earth. Without this framework and modelling his data is meaningless. On the other hand, when we look at the Huai Nan Tzu when confronted with a similar issue we are left with the realization of close planets and stars of a smaller size and a flat earth, the same view developed in the 1900s by the (mostly) Christian Flat Earth theorists.

It is very likely many Taoists held this view.


Buddhism also holds a belief in Mount Meru.

Native American

Several native american mythologies held that the sky was drapped over the earth like a tent. The stars were holes in this “tent”. Several tribes also share a world turtle myth.