Joseph Holden (1815-1900) was a prominent American Flat Earth lecturer in the late 19th Century. The son of a sawmill owner in Otisfield, Ohio, Holden was a former justice of the peace, trial justice, candidate for state senator and census enumerator before beginning to lecture at the age of 75. Much like Lady Blount, Holden used a non-confrontational approach in his lectures and was well-liked by both believers and non-believers who attended his lectures. Holden appealed to common-sense evidence to argue his position. One of his more famous experiments was to set a pail of water atop a pole overnight and check it in the morning. His assertion was that a revolving Earth would have moved the pail. As expected, the pail was in its original place the next morning.